Gross pathology: the recognition of disease based on macroscopic examination of surgical specimens generated at the time of surgery or autopsy.
Histology: the microscopic study of tissues. Histopathology is the science of diagnosing diseases on the basis of the histological aspect of the diseased tissues.
Blood bank/transfusion medicine: the clinical lab is responsible for processing and distributing donor blood to blood transfusion recipients.
Clinical chemistry: the gathering, detection and reporting of an incredible array of chemical measures found by the analysis of collected body samples.
Cytology: the study of detached cells. Cytopathology is the scientific study of disease changes within individual cells or cell types. The most common application of this technique is the Pap smear.
Flow cytometry : analysis of a process that allows for the identification of specific cells.
Immunology: the use of specific immune markers and antibodies to aid in the diagnosis of disease.
Immunohistochemistry: commonly known as IHC, refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically toantigens in human tissues. Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Specific molecular markers are characteristic of particular cancer types.
Microbiology: deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings.
Molecular pathology:. Molecular pathology focuses on the use of nucleic acid based techniques such as DNA sequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid microarrays for specialized studies of disease in tissues and cells.
Telepathology: allows consultations between pathologists and other physicians via the Internet and includes the study of images from gross surgical pathology specimens as well as histopathology and cytology specimens.